The vast amount of biological information that is now available through the completion of the Human Genome Project presents opportunities and challenges. The genomic era has the potential to advance an understanding of human genetic variation and its role in human health and disease. A challenge for genomics research is to understand the relationships between genomics, race, and ethnicity and the implications of uncovering these relationships. Robust and scholarly discourse on the concept of race and ethnicity in genomic research should be expanded to include social and behavioral scientists. Interdisciplinary research teams are needed in which psychologists, as well as other social and behavioral scientists, work collaboratively with geneticists and other natural scientists.