The term “biobank” is in fact a heterogeneous concept including a wide range of human biological samples, DNA and other genetic sample collections that can be classified according to different criteria,1 with population-based biobanks as one of them. On the international level, important initiatives concerning the establishment of population-based biobanks are developing in several countries. Taiwan also intends to create such a biobank (Taiwan Biobank) with local features. Supporting this initiative, the corresponding legislation, Human Genetic Database Management Act (hereinafter referred to as “Taiwan Biobank Act”) was approved on 7 January 2010. In this article, we will focus narrowly on population-based biobanks, going through the major ethical issues involved that should enable a trustworthy foundation of a biobank.